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International Comparisons of Manufacturing Productivity and Unit Labor Costs Trends, Summary Table 2

26 May 2015

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Table 2. Growth trend in unit labor cost (ULC), total labor cost, and output

National currency basis, manufacturing sector, 1999-2014

Average annual compound rates of change

Country                            Indicator 

1999-2006

2007-201220132014 

United States   ULC in national currency

           Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -1.9

    1.4

    3.4

    0.1

   -0.1

   -0.3

   -0.1

    1.3

    1.4

    0.5

    3.8

    3.3

Austrlia            ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    2.3

    3.8

    1.5

    2.3

    2.2

   -0.2

    1.4

    -0.9

    -2.2

    4.8

    2.8

   -1.9

Austria             ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    -1.4

     2.1

     3.5

    1.2

    2.8

    1.6

    1.7

    2.5

    0.7

    1.7

    1.9

    0.3

Belgium           ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -0.2

    1.9

    2.1

   0.8

   1.0

   0.2

    1.0

    1.0

   -0.1

    -2.0

    -0.3

     1.8

Canada            ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    1.4

    3.4

    1.9

     1.4

    -0.6

    -2.0

    1.5

    1.2

   -0.3

   -1.2

    1.6

    2.9

Czech Republic ULC in national currency

       Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -2.0

    6.5

    8.7

  -1.1

   2.3

   3.5

    2.8

    0.3

   -2.4

   -1.1

    4.8

    6.0

Denmark          ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    0.9

    1.9

    1.0

  -0.3

  -0.3

  -0.1

   -1.8

    1.0

    2.9

    1.9

    3.7

    1.8

Finland            ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -3.0

    3.5

    6.6

    4.3

    0.1

   -4.0

    -1.7

    -3.6

    -1.9

    -0.3

    -1.1

    -0.8

France             ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -0.7

    1.6

    2.3

    1.0

    0.8

   -0.2

    1.1

    0.3

   -0.8

    0.2

    0.4

    0.2

Germany          ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -1.6

    1.2

    2.8

    1.2

    2.1

    1.0

    3.2

    3.5

    0.3

    1.1

    3.3

    2.2

Ireland             ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -1.4

    5.1

    6.5

   -2.0

   -2.5

   -0.5

    6.0

    2.1

   -3.7

   -1.4

    2.9

    4.3

Italy                  ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    1.5

    2.4

    1.0

    2.3

    0.1

   -2.1

    1.2

   -0.9

   -2.1

    3.1

    2.8

   -0.4

Japan               ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    -4.4

    -2.0

     2.5

    -2.5

    -1.7

     0.8

   -1.9

   -1.7

    0.1

    0.6

    2.6

    2.0

Netherlands     ULC in national currency

            Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -0.4

    1.8

    2.2

    0.6

    1.3

    0.8

    2.3

    1.9

   -0.4

    0.3

    2.2

    1.9

Norway             ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    2.1

    3.6

    1.5

    2.2

    2.9

    0.7

    2.6

    6.0

    3.4

    0.5

    4.1

    3.6

Singapore        ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -3.7

    3.5

    7.6

  -0.8

   4.5

   5.3

    3.2

    5.0

    1.7

    1.5

    4.2

    2.6

South Korea     ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -0.3

    9.3

    9.7

    0.8

    6.5

    5.6

    0.1

    3.4

    3.3

    0.0

    4.0

    4.0

Spain               ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    1.4

    4.2

    2.8

     1.3

    -1.5

    -2.8

    -2.0

    -3.1

    -1.1

   -0.3

    2.0

    2.3

Sweden            ULC in national currency

            Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -2.9

    2.8

    5.8

    1.7

    1.2

   -0.5

    -0.5

    -1.1

    -0.6

    1.6

    0.2

   -1.3

Taiwan             ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -3.5

    3.3

    7.1

   -4.1

    2.0

    6.4

   -0.2

    1.3

    1.5

   -2.7

    3.5

    6.3

United Kingdom ULC in national currency

       Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    0.7

    1.0

    0.3

    1.9

    0.7

   -1.2

    4.1

    4.0

   -0.1

    0.9

    3.2

    2.3

All Economies ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    NA

    NA

    3.0

    NA

    NA

    0.2

    NA

    NA

    0.5

    NA

    NA

    2.4

Europe            ULC in national currency

            Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

    NA

    NA

    2.4

    NA

    NA

   -0.3

    NA

    NA

   -0.5

    NA

    NA

    1.5

Euro Area         ULC in national currency

             Total labor cost in national currency

                                               output

   -0.5

    2.0

    2.5

    1.3

    1.0

   -0.3

    1.9

    1.2

   -0.6

    0.9

    2.3

    1.4

 
Note:
NA = Not Available
 
“Output” is defined as value added.
Data for all countries relate to all employed persons (employees and self-employed workers), except for Taiwan, where data relate to employees (wage and salary earners) and Singapore where data for compensation refer to employees (wage and salary earners).
Data for all countries (except Japan) are prepared according to the System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008 or its European counterpart, the European System of Accounts 2010 (ESA 2010). Data for Japan are based on the SNA 1993.
Prior to 1991, data for Germany are estimated with data from the former West Germany.

All Economies
refers to all countries in the ILC productivity and unit labor costs comparisons series, excluding Norway, Singapore, and Taiwan due to missing purchasing power parities (PPPs) for manufacturing used to convert output denominated in national currency units to US dollars.
Europe includes Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Norway is excluded due to missing purchasing power parities (PPPs) for manufacturing used to convert output denominated in national currency units to US dollars.
Euro Area includes Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain.

“Compensation” data are used as a proxy for “Labor Cost” when payroll tax and subsidies data are not available to adjust worker compensation to an employer labor cost basis.  See country notes for more details.
 
For complete definitions and country information, see Technical Notes and Country Notes (Coming Soon).

Source: The Conference Board, International Labor Comparisons program, May 2015


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