International Comparisons of Manufacturing Productivity and Unit Labor Costs Trends, Report Tables

Table 3. Unit labor costs (ULC) in U.S. dollars and in national currency and exchange rates

Manufacturing, 19 countries, 1979-2012

Average Annual compound rates of change

CountryIndicator1979-20122007-20122010-20112011-2012
United States
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
0.2
0.2
0.0
-0.3
-0.3
0.0
0.9
0.9
0.0
-1.8
-1.8
0.0
Australia
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
0.2
0.2
0.0
-0.3
-0.3
0.0
0.9
0.9
0.0
-1.8
-1.8
0.0
Beligum
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.0
1.2
-0.2
4.0
-0.9
5.0
0.9
0.9
0.0
-3.3
4.7
-7.6
Canada
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
2.5
2.0
0.5
1.7
0.2
1.5
4.5
0.3
4.1
0.5
1.5
-1.0
Czech Republic
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
NA
NA
NA
-1.0
-1.7
0.7
4.6
-3.1
7.9
-7.1
2.8
-9.6
Denmark
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
2.2
2.5
-0.3
-0.7
0.5
-1.2
3.8
-1.0
4.8
-9.3
-2.1
-7.3
Finland
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
0.9
1.5
-0.5
5.0
6.3
-1.3
10.6
5.4
5.0
2.2
10.6
-7.6
France
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.6
2.2
-0.6
0.9
2.2
-1.3
6.4
1.4
5.0
-4.5
3.4
-7.6
Germany
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.8
1.3
0.6
0.6
1.9
-1.3
1.8
-3.0
5.0
-3.4
4.5
-7.6
Italy
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
2.5
4.4
-1.8
1.8
3.1
-1.3
6.8
1.8
5.0
-3.9
4.0
-7.6
Japan
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.9
-1.1
3.1
7.7
-0.4
8.1
14.6
4.2
10.0
4.0
3.9
0.0
Korea
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.4
4.0
-2.5
-1.6
2.2
-3.8
5.8
1.4
4.3
1.5
3.1
-1.6
Netherlands
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.1
0.6
0.5
0.5
1.8
-1.3
2.8
-2.0
5.0
-4.7
3.1
-7.6
Norway
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
3.5
3.9
-0.4
1.4
1.2
0.2
9.8
1.8
7.8
-1.7
2.1
-3.7
Singapore
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.9
0.2
1.7
1.8
-1.9
3.8
6.1
-2.2
8.4
2.6
1.9
0.6
Spain
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.7
3.8
-2.0
-1.9
-0.7
-1.3
3.6
-1.3
5.0
-10.2
-2.8
-7.6
Sweden
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
-0.3
1.1
-1.4
0.8
0.8
0.0
11.1
0.1
11.0
0.6
5.0
-4.2
Taiwan
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
1.1
0.5
0.6
-1.6
-3.7
2.1
5.7
-1.6
7.4
0.4
1.0
-0.5
United Kingdom
ULC in U.S. dollars
ULC in nat curr.
Exchange rates
2.0
2.9
-0.9
-2.8
1.9
-4.6
2.5
-1.1
3.7
5.1
6.6
-1.4
 
NOTE: Exchange rates are value of foreign currency relative to the U.S. dollar.
German data for years before 1991 pertain to the former West Germany.
Source: The Conference Board, International Labor Comparisons program
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