International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing, Summary Tables

Table 1. Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, in US dollars and as a percent of costs in the United States (US =100)
Table 2. Average annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates
Table 3. Components of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, US dollars, 2013
Table 4. Manufacturing hourly compensation costs in China and India, in US dollars and as a percent of costs in the United States (US =100)

 

TABLE 1. Hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, in US dollars and as a percent of costs in the United States (US =100)

 Hourly Compensation Costs(1)

   in US dollars  US = 100 
1997(2) 2013 1997(2) 2013
Norway 25.88 65.86 112 181
Switzerland 30.43 63.23 132 174
Belgium 28.95 54.88 126 151
Sweden 25.04 51.10 109 141
Denmark 23.72 51.07 103 141
Germany 29.18 48.98 127 135
Australia 18.89 47.09 82 130
Finland 22.36 44.57 97 123
Austria 24.91 44.37 108 122
France 24.87 42.85 108 118
Netherlands 22.46 42.26 98 116
Ireland 17.42 41.98 76 116
Italy 19.77 36.92 86 102
United States 23.04 36.34 100 100
Canada 18.49 36.33 80 100
United Kingdom 19.30 31.00 84 85
Japan 22.00 29.13 96 80
Spain 13.96 28.09 61 77
New Zealand 12.04 25.85 52 71
Singapore 12.16 23.95 53 66
Israel 11.62 22.25 50 61
South Korea 9.24 21.96 40 60
Argentina 7.55 19.97 33 55
Greece 11.61 18.96 50 52
Portugal 6.44 12.90 28 35
Slovakia 2.84 12.31 12 34
Czech Republic 3.25 12.17 14 33
Estonia NA 11.66 NA 32
Brazil 7.03 10.69 31 29
Hungary 3.05 9.44 13 26
Taiwan 7.07 9.37 31 26
Poland 3.29 9.25 14 25
Mexico 3.47 6.82 15 19
Philippines 1.24 2.12 5 6

For complete definitions and country information, see Technical Notes and Country Notes.

(1) Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.

(2) With the exception of Estonia, 1997 is the first year data for all countries are available. 

Source: The Conference Board, International Labor Comparisons program, December 2014   

 

 

TABLE 2. Average annual percent change in hourly compensation costs(1) in manufacturing and exchange rates


 1997-2013  2012-2013  

National currency change Exchange rate change (2) US dollar change (3) National currency change Exchange rate change (2) US dollar change (3)
Estonia NA 1.0 NA 7.6 3.3 11.2
Israel 4.4 -0.3 4.1 3.4 6.8 10.5
Slovakia 6.9 2.5 9.6 4.3 3.3 7.7
Mexico 7.5 -2.9 4.3 4.2 3.1 7.5
South Korea 6.5 -0.9 5.6 4.4 2.9 7.4
Hungary 8.5 -1.1 7.3 6.7 0.6 7.4
Netherlands 3.0 1.0 4.0 3.5 3.3 7.0
Germany 2.2 1.0 3.3 3.3 3.3 6.7
Poland 6.4 0.2 6.7 3.5 3.0 6.7
Italy 3.0 1.0 4.0 2.9 3.3 6.4
Finland 3.5 0.9 4.4 2.7 3.3 6.1
Sweden 3.5 1.0 4.6 2.0 4.0 6.1
Austria 2.6 1.0 3.7 2.5 3.3 5.9
France 2.4 1.1 3.5 2.0 3.3 5.4
Argentina 18.2 -10.1 6.3 26.7 -16.9 5.3
Belgium 3.0 1.0 4.1 1.8 3.3 5.2
Spain 3.5 1.0 4.5 1.2 3.3 4.6
Norway 4.8 1.2 6.0 5.6 -1.0 4.5
Portugal 3.5 0.9 4.4 0.8 3.3 4.1
New Zealand 3.5 1.4 4.9 2.6 1.2 3.8
Denmark 3.9 1.0 4.9 0.5 3.1 3.6
Switzerland 1.8 2.8 4.7 2.0 1.2 3.2
Ireland 5.0 0.7 5.7 -0.3 3.3 3.1
Czech Republic 5.4 3.1 8.6 2.4 0.0 2.5
Philippines 5.8 -2.3 3.4 2.7 -0.5 2.1
United States 2.9 0.0 2.9 2.0 0.0 2.0
United Kingdom 3.3 -0.3 3.0 1.5 -1.0 0.4
Taiwan 2.0 -0.2 1.8 0.4 -0.5 -0.2
Canada 2.4 1.9 4.3 2.3 -3.0 -0.7
Singapore 3.2 1.1 4.3 -0.7 -0.1 -0.8
Australia 4.2 1.7 5.9 5.8 -6.8 -1.3
Brazil 7.2 -4.2 2.7 8.9 -9.5 -1.4
Greece 2.7 0.4 3.1 -5.4 3.3 -2.3
Japan 0.4 1.4 1.8 0.8 -18.2 -17.6

 

For complete definitions and country information, see Technical Notes and Country Notes.

(1) Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.

(2) Exchange rates are expressed as US dollars per foreign currency unit. A positive (negative) change signifies an appreciation (depreciation) in the foreign currency relative to the US dollar.

(3) U.S. dollar changes are approximately equal to national currency changes plus exchange rate changes for each country.

Source: The Conference Board, International Labor Comparisons program, December 2014   

 

TABLE 3. Components of hourly compensation costs in manufacturing, U.S. dollars, 2013

 Hourly Compensation Costs(1)

    Total  Social Insurance(2) Direct Pay  
Total Directly-Paid Benefits(3) Pay for Time Worked(4)
United States 36.34 8.69 27.66 3.31 24.35
Argentina 19.97 3.48 16.49 2.79 13.69
Australia 47.09 9.37 37.72 4.49 33.24
Austria 44.37 11.55 32.81 9.51 23.30
Belgium 54.88 17.66 37.22 11.08 26.14
Brazil 10.69 3.41 7.29 1.53 5.76
Canada 36.33 7.26 29.06 3.59 25.47
Czech Republic 12.17 3.23 8.93 1.58 7.35
Denmark 51.07 5.58 45.48 7.63 37.85
Estonia 11.66 3.04 8.62 1.12 7.50
Finland 44.57 9.09 35.48 9.22 26.26
France 42.85 13.02 29.83 5.67 24.16
Germany 48.98 10.61 38.37 10.48 27.89
Greece 18.96 4.38 14.58 3.55 11.03
Hungary 9.44 2.26 7.18 1.82 5.37
Ireland 41.98 7.00 34.98 8.66 26.32
Israel 22.25 3.63 18.62 1.82 16.79
Italy 36.92 10.70 26.23 6.80 19.42
Japan 29.13 5.27 23.86 7.34 16.51
Mexico 6.82 2.07 4.75 NA NA
Netherlands 42.26 9.38 32.88 8.50 24.38
New Zealand 25.85 1.03 24.82 3.16 21.65
Norway 65.86 11.18 54.68 NA NA
Philippines 2.12 0.17 1.96 0.37 1.58
Poland 9.25 1.54 7.71 2.17 5.54
Portugal 12.90 2.56 10.34 2.60 7.74
Singapore 23.95 4.00 19.95 4.23 15.73
Slovakia 12.31 3.34 8.97 2.40 6.57
South Korea 21.96 4.30 17.67 NA NA
Spain 28.09 7.25 20.84 5.64 15.20
Sweden 51.10 15.54 35.56 5.53 30.03
Switzerland 63.23 11.63 51.60 11.98 39.62
Taiwan 9.37 1.37 8.01 NA NA
United Kingdom 31.00 4.51 26.49 4.20 22.28

 

For complete definitions and country information, see Technical Notes and Country Notes.

(1) Compensation costs include direct pay, social insurance expenditures, and labor-related taxes.

(2) Employer social insurance expenditures are legally required, private, and contractual social benefit costs, and labor-related taxes minus subsidies.

(3) Directly-paid benefits are primarily pay for leave time, irregular bonuses, and pay in kind.

(4) Pay for time worked is primarily base wages and salaries, overtime pay, regular bonuses and premiums (paid each pay period), and cost of living adjustments.

Source: The Conference Board, International Labor Comparisons program, December 2014

 

TABLE 4. Manufacturing hourly compensation costs in China and India, in US dollars and as a percent of costs in the United States (US =100)

 Hourly Compensation Costs(1)

   US Dollars  US = 100 
China India China India
1996 NA NA NA NA
1997 NA NA NA NA
1998 NA NA NA NA
1999 NA 0.68 NA 2.8
2000 NA 0.70 NA 2.8
2001 NA 0.71 NA 2.7
2002 0.60 0.73 2.2 2.7
2003 0.68 0.81 2.4 2.8
2004 0.74 0.85 2.5 2.9
2005 0.83 0.91 2.8 3.0
2006 0.95 0.95 3.1 3.1
2007 1.21 1.17 3.8 3.6
2008 1.59 1.26 4.9 3.8
2009 1.74 1.23 5.1 3.6
2010 1.98 1.46 5.7 4.2
2011 2.62 1.59 7.4 4.5
2012 3.07 NA 8.6 NA

 

For country information and a description of data limitations associated with estimates for China and India, see the Country Notes.

(1) Due to various data gaps and methodological issues, compensation costs for China and India are not directly comparable to each other or with the data for other countries found in this report, and therefore are presented separately.

Source: The Conference Board, International Labor Comparisons program, December 2014


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Hourly Compensation Costs 2013 - Download related products

International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs in Manufacturing, 2013

Full Report

Summary Tables

Data Tables

Technical Notes

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