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While the Middle East is known for its wealth of natural resources and financial resources, employment growth is the main source of the recent accumulation of wealth in the region. The key challenge for Middle East economies in the future will be to create productive jobs for millions of young people who will be entering the labor markets every year. For strong, sustainable economic growth, countries in the region need to improve the productivity of jobs. To accomplish this, they must diversify their economies, improve governance, and enhance investment in ICT, human capital, and educational systems.