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The United States has enjoyed almost a decade of strong economic growth that has been fueled by huge productivity gains, increased competitiveness in manufacturing, high employment growth in services, and solid wage gains. Innovation, when cautiously measured as improvements in skills, investments in information and communication technologies, and such intangible items as research and development and organizational competencies, probably accounted for more than half of the improvement in labor productivity growth between 1973-1995 and 1995-2005. The innovation sector will continue to be an important source of the products and services needed to move the economy forward. Innovation and U.S. Competitiveness: Reevaluating the Contributors to Growth takes stock of the innovation capabilities of the U.S. economy, including hurdles to maintaining the nation's leadership position, and recommends some means and methods of overcoming those obstacles.